Posted On: November 28, 2011

Twilight’s Bella Swan Wins Trademark and Copyright Infringement Lawsuit Over Jacket

Before last week’s release of Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn Part 1, a trademark and copyright infringement lawsuit saga dawned on clothing manufacturer B.B. Dakota over the pictured Bella Jacket. Summit Entertainment, the producer of the Twilight franchise that has raked in more than $1 billion in gross revenues, owns several USPTO trademark registrations for the “TWILIGHT” and “BELLA” trademarks, including for use on clothing and jewelry. Summit of course also owns all copyrights in the movies in addition to marketing and publicity materials and the “Bella Trading Card Image.” Summit’s licensing of the intellectual property rights has grossed an additional $63 million.


Defendant BB is a clothing manufacturer that sold the pictured women’s cargo jacket in 2006 under the “Leigh” mark, which was discontinued in 2008. When the Leigh jacket was worn by Bella in the 2009 Twilight movie, BB was credited as the manufacturer in an Entertainment Weekly article accompanying a photograph. BB’s outside public relations contractor then contacted Summit’s manager of national publicity requesting permission to re-publish the EW image on its website, which she included in an email link to EW’s website. Summit’s representative responded with a simple “OK.” A few days later, BB requested permission to allow for a retail store to use the image, to which Summit responded with one word: “sure”.

Without seeking further permission, however, BB created “hangtags” for the jackets that included not the Entertainment Weekly picture, but an image of Bella wearing the jacket that Summit had used to promote posters, clothing, and other merchandise. Apparently, BB’s own PR rep warned BB to obtain permission to use the new image, but BB failed to heed the warning and argued that by including “As seen in the Twilight movie” language on the tag would constitute fair use. Thus, BB’s sales representative emailed the image to two hundred of her sales accounts representing that BB had permission to use the image on the hangtag and to publicize the product. The retailers in turn sent out email blasts using the Bella image with the belief that BB had properly licensed it. Summit sent cease and desist letters to BB’s retailers, after which BB instructed them to cut the hang tags from existing inventory and provided a substitute picture of a girl resembling the Bella character. To make matters worse, BB continued to refer to the jacket as the “Twilight jacket.”

Metropark, one of BB’s retailers, filed bankruptcy and ModCloth settled the matter. BB countersued Summit for trade dress infringement and unfair competition. Summit filed for summary judgment of liability on its trademark and copyright infringement, and trademark dilution claims and on BB’s counterclaims.

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Posted On: November 6, 2011

Paris Hilton Sued For Copying Watch Design In Patent Infringement Lawsuit

watch-design-patent-lawsuit-infringement-paris-hilton-sued.jpgSince she blew onto the scene and gained notoriety from her 2004 sex tape, Paris Hilton has become a trademark licensing phenomenon, lending her name to a wide range of products, from shoes to perfumes. Her latest watch design, however, may not be as successful after being sued for patent infringement. Fine jewelry and watch designer de Grisogono has manufactured and sold the Novantatre watch since 2007. The term “Novantatre” is Italian for “93”, referring to the prominently displayed “9” and “3” on the watch’s face.

To protect the watch’s design, Plaintiff applied for and was granted U.S. Patent Nos. D596,052 (“the ‘052 patent”) and D627,673 (“the ‘673 patent”). The ‘052 patent covers the square-shaped casing design of the watch and the ‘673 patent relates to the ornamental design of the watch dial, including the positioning of the “9” and the “3”. Plaintiff is accusing the Paris Hilton-branded “Coussin” wristwatch of copying the same protected design elements covered by the two patents.

Plaintiff alleges that it sent multiple cease and desist letters to the defendants, which were ignored. Thus, Plaintiff contends that the infringement is willful and intentional and is requesting not only for disgorgement of Defendants’ profits under 35 U.S.C. § 289, but also for the court to triple the award under 35 U.S.C. § 284.

design-patent-watch-paris-hilton-wristwatch.jpgIn addition to suing Paris Hilton Entertainment, Plaintiff is also suing the manufacturer Parlux as the exclusive licensee of the Paris Hilton trademark used on the watch, and Crossbow International and Mr. Pascal Savoy because they have possession and/or control of the Paris Hilton websites where the watches are sold.

The 9th Circuit’s recent Louis Vuitton v. Akanoc Solutions ruling affirmed a web host’s liability for failing to close down websites that were selling counterfeit goods. A jury trial resulted in a $32.4 million award, where the web hosts were jointly liable with the web site operators selling counterfeit goods that infringed Louis Vuitton’s trademarks and copyrights. The trial court then reduced the damages award by approximately $10 million. The 9th Circuit agreed that the web host was jointly liable, but further reduced the damages award because the verdict form improperly allowed multiple awards of statutory damages for willful copyright and trademark infringement against each infringer. “[W]hen statutory damages are assessed against one defendant or a group of defendants held to be jointly and severally liable, each work infringed may form the basis of only one award, regardless of the number of separate infringements of that work.” Columbia Pictures Television v. Krypton Broad. of Birmingham, Inc., 106 F.3d 284, 294 (9th Cir. 1997), rev’d on other grounds, Feltner v. Columbia Pictures Television, Inc., 523 U.S. 340 (1998)). Thus, the 9th Circuit vacated the damages award and ordered an award of approximately $10.8 million jointly and severally against all of the defendants.

The case is De Grisogono, S.A., v. Paris Hilton Entertainment, et al., CV11-9022 SVW (C.D. Cal. 2011).

Posted On: November 2, 2011

Court Grants Software Copyright Temporary Restraining Order Against Former Employee

copyright-software-employee-independent-contractor-tro-sun.jpgGlacern Machine Tools, LLC is suing its former employee, who was also an owner and manager of the company, for copyright infringement, conversion, and breach of fiduciary duty. Glacern alleges that defendant Eric Sun wrote and created copyrighted source code, within the scope of his employment and on a work-for-hire basis, for a first property management software program and a second, derivative work that incorporates elements of the original source code. Sun allegedly used Glacern’s equipment at the direction of Glacern to create the software programs, which are owned by Glacern under the operating agreement.

Glacern contends that Sun removed two computers from its headquarters, copied the software programs, and changed the administrative passwords. In addition, Sun allegedly contacted Glacern’s customer and demanded that monthly payments now be paid to him instead. Thus, Glacern sought a temporary restraining order from the Court preventing Sun from: “(1) destroying Plaintiff’s Software Products; (2) withholding from Plaintiff personal property which Plaintiff owns, including the Software Products; and (3) transferring “any such asset, real or intangible.” In addition, Glacer sought to compel Sun to: “(1) within five (5) days, give Plaintiff a complete list of all locations of the Software Products; and (2) allow Plaintiff unlimited remote access to an IP address, which Plaintiffs believe houses the Software Products.”

The Court noted that in order to be granted equitable relief, Plaintiff must show irreparable injury and the inadequacy of legal remedies. Also, “[t]he proper legal standard for preliminary injunctive relief requires a party to demonstrate ‘that he is likely to succeed on the merits, that he is likely to suffer irreparable harm in the absence of preliminary relief, that the balance of equities tips in his favor, and that an injunction is in the public interest.’”

The Court found that Plaintiff’s first alleged harm – loss of customers and business reputation – did not constitute irreparable harm because it could be redressed through monetary relief. But the second alleged harm – possible destruction of the software – did constitute irreparable harm warranting the issuance of the TRO. The Court, however, believed that the relief sought was too broad and only restrained the defendants from deleting or destroying the software programs until a hearing on the possible issuance of a preliminary injunction on November 7, 2011.

Prudent business owners require that employees execute work-for-hire agreements assigning copyrights, as well as other intellectual property rights, created in the scope of employment to the employer despite the Copyright Act’s ownership provision. In the absence of a written agreement, in Community for Creative Non-Violence v. Reid, the Supreme Court set forth several non-exhaustive factors to determine whether a hired party is deemed an employee. If an independent contractor creates the software program without a written assignment agreement, however, the independent contractor will own the copyrights therein. So if you want to own the copyright to your website, make sure you have an agreement transferring the rights to you before you pay the web designer.

The case is Glacern Machine Tools, LLC v. Eric Suyu Sun, SACV11-1641 DOC (C.D. Cal. 2011).